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Freud vs. Kant: Psychology Assignment Help

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Introduction

The theory of unconscious was formulated by Sigmund Freud, a physician who believed in unconscious impulses as the driving force for most of the people’s actions. Majority of the people assume their thought and feelings are determined by one’s own free will while Freud’s believed there must be other forces that influence people’s feelings and thoughts.  Freud believed the irrational forces are dangerous and a high need to control them more so in the era of civilization. Freud believed that human behavior is influenced by inner forces and one cannot give valid reasons for some of the actions that human beings carry out. Freud focused on the both inside and outside forces that he presumed influenced the human behavior. Freud was involved with patients with nervous disorders where he found out that one’s childhood experiences which may be sexual in nature influence one’s nervous disorders. These nervous disorders may include depression, anxiety, obsession and hysteria[1]

Kant on the other hand developed the theory of Enlightenment which talks of the emergence of man from an immaturity which Kant believes is self imposed.[2] Kant describes immaturity as a person’s failure to employ their own understanding and always seek the assistance from another person. These individuals do not have the courage to rely on their understanding and most cases are lazy and cowardly. Kant says most people are very lazy and keep depending on other people such as the physician to direct their diet, the pastor to direct their conscience. Kant believes one has the freedom to reason and ones thought and ideas are free. With regards to Freud’s theory, some of the human actions are conducted unconsciously. Unconsciousness hinders the power of reason through Kant’s enlightenment theory. 2

Civilization and Religious Beliefs

Freud believes that civilization poses great pain on human beings. Freud sees human beings as people who are selfish and only interested in satisfying their own needs. Freud explains that an individual is only interested on exploiting his fellow human being either through work without pay, sexual molestation, humiliation and even causing one another pain and even death.1

Freud believes civilization requires utmost effort to counteract man’s aggressiveness. Civilization tries to set limits on human beings but Freud assumes this human urge for aggression is irrational in man and one does not have the ability to regulate it. Civilization aims at bringing people from different races and nations into one unity. However, Freud assumes natural aggressiveness will continue to oppose civilization. Freud describes aggression as a human nature and inner force which is the greatest impediment to civilization.[3]  Freud is aware of the irrational behavior in man that hinders civilization and he is not pleased with man’s lack of ability to control this behavior. Freud is thus not against the theory of enlightenment and is concerned about the destructive nature of these irrational impulses. From his scientific analysis of the nature of man, Freud believes reasoning is the best way for social improvement to overcome the barriers to civilization. Freud also argues on religious issues where he believes religion as a major hindrance to reason. He argues one should break from these religious beliefs to achieve civilization. On the contrary, Kant believes one has free will to regulate their thoughts and actions through enlightenment. Kant describes enlightenment as a transition from an immaturity that he presumes to be self-imposed. Most people are lazy and cowards which makes them to be immature and depend on other people’s understanding. Though it is difficult, it is possible for a man to transition from the state of immaturity, which is his nature, to a state of enlightenment. This can be achieved by changing their minds to attain freedom which ultimately leads to enlightenment.  These people will be able to reason out by themselves and achieve a rational mind to help pursue their personal goals. [4]

Enlightenment can be attained through the freedom to think reasonably in public matters. For instance, one officer may argue you do not do this while the taxman may order you pay this, the pastor may also ask you believe this or that. These examples show cases of restrictions on one’s freedom which may support or hinder enlightenment. Kant believes using personal reason in public is free and can help human beings achieve enlightenment. Kant assumes use of reason in private ways is limited but does not hinder the power to reason. [5]

Kant offers an example of an officer working in a civic office and receives orders from the superior. In this case, the officer uses the power to reason and obeys the order though he is free to make his own judgment on the appropriateness of the order. Another example is the individuals paying their taxes but still have the freedom to express their thoughts and opinions on the imposed taxes. Thus, from Kant theory of enlightenment, it is possible for community members to live in harmony and achieve a state of civilization. Kant also brings in the religion issue where he provides an example of a pastor who gives instructions and doctrines according to church requirements. This pastor is limited to the beliefs of the church and in this context uses his power of reason to follow the church doctrines. However, in the context of a clerical writing on religious doctrines, one is free to express his or her opinion on the religious matters. Thus, Kant views the power of reason as a way of enlightening the people which in turn promotes civilization.

Human Narcissism

Freud describes libido as sexual desire which is a strong sexual instinct in human mind which can be compared to the hunger. Freud expounds on neurotic disorders to be associated with sexual instincts. He believes that neurosis develops depending on one’s libido and the ability to get satisfied. The disease forms due to an individual’s sexual development. Freud believes that, sexual development depends on ego instincts which are believed to affect personal self esteem and self preservation. The ego plays defense and a person fails to attain their sexual desires which may force them to look for a sexual substitute to achieve their sexual satisfaction. As such Freud assumes that this substitutive satisfaction leads to neurosis disorders. [6]

During treatment of neurosis, the distribution of libido in the patient is often considered. The physicians look for the object that the libido is bound to and place it at the ego instincts. Narcissism is a condition where ego is attached to libido. The Sigmund Freud Theory states that narcissism proceeds to object- love though not a certain quantity of the libido remains in the ego. This assumptions helps expound on the theory of libido which explains the omnipotence of man’s thoughts and how narcissism behaviors of human beings influence external world.[7]  With such external relations, Freud believes that man is supreme with his thoughts and has core place in his ego where he keeps track of his actions and observations. Freud believes a man’s inner perceptions and his consciousness control the ego core influencing his important occurrences in the mind. Impulses that work independent of each other while corresponding to other instincts lead to individual actions. Freud considers that certain thoughts arise involuntary and one cannot control them. Freud explains that these emergent thoughts are at times more powerful that those arising from ego instincts. [8]Kant on the other hand, believes an individual has the power of reason to discern what actions to take. One’s thoughts and feelings can be regulated through the power of reason. An individual who is enlightened has the capacity to control their libido and thus achieve sexual satisfaction. Kant argues that a person can reason out based on their understanding without relying on other people such as the pastor’s or the physician’s advice. Individuals are free if they would only stop being lazy and take courage in their thoughts and ideas. Based on the enlightenment theory, one has the ability to control their ego instincts and influence their sexual behaviors. The theory states that a person has the freedom to reason independently without seeking the opinion of the church, clergy or schools.

Conclusion

The Sigmund Freud theory highlights human thoughts based on unconsciousness. Freud assumes that irrational forces guide individual thoughts and behaviors.  His philosophical commitments depend on the philosophy of science of mind and human emotions. Freud provides his awareness on irrational thoughts on civilization and religious beliefs though he assumes that reason enhances social improvement. He is trying to relieve human misery by making people understand their nature. Freud believes that individuals have strong inner feelings that influence the actions they carry out. The human mind is full of aggression where each individual thinks about their own needs before those of others. Thus, he believes civilization imposes sexual desires and aggressiveness to human beings.  He assumes that people’s inclination is not to love each other, rather to satisfy their aggressive behaviors. He also believes that the core of human nature is in opposition to civilized life. Conversely, Kant believes that enlightenment improves a person’s immaturity. He assumes that a person must not depend on other people’s thoughts, and those relying on other people are lazy and coward. Kant explains that it is possible to live in harmony as community if every person would exercise the power of reason. This enlightenment enables one to carry out their duties in the designated office while respecting the existing law as well expressing their personal thoughts and opinions. Freud on the other hand expounds on the theory of libido and how certain impulse that cannot be controlled influence a person’s sexual behavior. Freud elaborates on the issue of libido and ego instincts and the association between the two. He maintains the involuntary forces are at times stronger than the ego forces. However, Kant holds that one has ability to control their sexual behaviors by discerning their thoughts and using the power of reason.

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Bibliography

[1] Perry, Marvin. Western civilization: Ideas, politics & society. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), 690-692

[2] Kant, Emanuel. What is Enlightenment? 1784. 1-3. http://www.allmendeberlin.de/What-is-Enlightenment.pdf

[3] Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and its discontents. (New York: W.W. Norton, 1972), 23-25

 

[4] Kant, Emanuel. 1784. What is Enlightenment? 1-3.  http://www.allmendeberlin.de/What-is-Enlightenment.pdf

[5] Kant, Emanuel, Ibid, 3

[6] Freud, Sigmund. 1917. A difficulty in the path of psychoanalysis. 137-139.  Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/341987/a-difficulty-in-the-path-of-psycho-analysis

[7] Freud, Sigmund. Ibid, 1-3

[8] Freud, Sigmund. 1917. A difficulty in the path of psychoanalysis. 137-139. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/341987/a-difficulty-in-the-path-of-psycho-analysis

Ditching US Airways Flight 1549 in Hudson River: Sample Aviation Assignment

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Emergency Incident

An emergency incident refers to a situation that poses an instantaneous risk to health, life, property, or environment (Wang, Rosca, Tepfenhart & Milewski, 2006). It hence requires urgent intervention to in order to exercise control limiting the progression of the situation into a worse stage (Buck, Trainor & Aguirre, 2006). At times, palliative care for the aftermath is the only possible intervention as mitigation may be not possible. A good example of an emergency incident occurred on 15th January 2009 in Hudson River (Pariès, 2009). Airbus A320, a commercial passenger aircraft, US Airways Flight 1549 headed for Charlotte Douglas International Airport, North Carolina suffered a bird strike (Marra et al., 2009). This caused both its engines to fail and the flight could not make it back to LaGuardia Airport, New York City. The crew of the aircraft decided to make an unpowered emergency landing in Hudson River. There were 155 persons on board and Captain Chesley alongside First Officer Jeffrey made the ditching decision to avoid what was a likely imminent crash (Pariès, 2009). The ditching of the aircraft into the river was later on regarded as a unique and heroic aviation achievement (Pariès, 2009). The aircraft’s 6 minutes flight ended at 3:31 pm marking what would be the beginning an emergency operation to rescue the occupants of the flight from the sinking aircraft.

Following the Incident Command System

According to Buck, Trainor and Aguirre (2006), an Incident Command System (ICS) refers to a standardized approach to the command, control, and coordination of emergency response. This provides a common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be effective (Fraher, 2011). For US Airways Flight 1549, the greatest command responsibility lied with Captain Chesley. Being the flight commander, rescue and evacuation plans especially within the premises of the aircraft depended on him (Pariès, 2009). He therefore had to coordinate the flight crew on the process of evacuating the passengers from the cabin. The cabin was likely to fill up with water which would bring in the risk of drowning before rescue took place. There was need hence to take passengers to safety within the shortest time. On ditching, the captain opened cockpit door and gave the flight attendants an order to evacuate the passengers. Two flight attendants opened front doors which were meant also to activate a slide craft. The flight attendants also instructed passengers to climb over the seats as they moved forward (Marra et al., 2009). This would enable them to escape the rising waters of Hudson River inside the cabin. The safety destinations were the wings of the aircraft and an inflatable raft from where the boats would hopefully complete the evacuation process. Captain Chesley walked twice through the length of the evacuated cabin to ensure that no one remained behind (Fraher, 2011). Dave Sanderson, one of the passengers volunteered assistance in the evacuation process. Most notably, among the rescued passengers, one was in a wheelchair. Based on these observations, the process of ditching US Airways Flight 1549 into Hudson River, and the evacuation within the cabin followed Incident Command System protocol. Captain Chesley was fully leading the rest of the crew to bring the situation under control (Pariès, 2009).

Mistakes in the Hudson River Flight Ditch

The entire operation by the flight crew onboard US Airways Flight 1549 from the moment it suffered the bird strike and consequently an engine failure; to the final evacuation from the waters of Hudson River was considered a great success (Marra et al., 2009). However, a few hitches occurred one being that Captain Chesley forgot to press the ditching button which would have sealed valves and openings underneath the aircraft (Pariès, 2009). Another mistake is that a panicking passenger opened a rear door which caused water to dash in and fill the cabin at a faster rate. The second mistake would have been avoided by the flight crew assuring the passengers that all was well (Pariès, 2009). This would minimize the chances of the passengers panicking (Fraher, 2011).

The Command and Control Process

In Incident Command System protocol, the command and control process refers to the defined hierarchy which defines the role of each personnel (Buck, Trainor & Aguirre, 2006). It also defines to whom they are supposed to whom one should respond. In aviation, the practice requires that the captain should get in touch with the airport control tower in case of emergency and Captain Chesley followed this (Pariès, 2009). The rest of the crew were answerable to the captain and hence followed his orders.

The Role of the Incident Commander

In an emergency, the incident commander is responsible for the development of incident objectives (Fraher, 2011). He is also responsible for the management of all incident operations. In addition, the Incident Commander is responsible for the application of resources and overall oversight on all persons involved. The captain hence on the engine failure had to make decision regarding how best to save the flight occupants. In addition, he was responsible on devising and ensuring that all the passengers and crew members got rescued safely from the waters of Hudson River.

Definition of “Span of Control”

This refers to the number of individuals that a supervisor in an emergency is responsible for (Wang, Rosca, Tepfenhart & Milewski, 2006). The recommended ratio of supervisors to individuals is between 1:3 and 1:7. In the Hudson incident, Captain Chesley’s span of control involved the flight crew (Pariès, 2009). On their part, the flight crew members were responsible for all the passengers onboard without any specific allocation criteria.

Summary of the Event

Prior to the ditching in Hudson River, Captain Chesley had contacted air traffic control at LaGuardia Airport seeking clearance for an emergency landing. However, the realization that they could not make it back safely to the airport due to loss of altitude led to the decision to ditch in Hudson River. About 90 seconds before the ditch, Captain Chesley informed the passengers that they should brace for the impact. The flight attendants instructed the passengers how they ought to get prepared for the impact occasioned by the ditch into the waters of River Hudson. To maximize the chances of a successful rescue process, US Airways Flight 1549’s captain chose the ditching location near three boat terminals.

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References

Atkins, E. M. (2010). Emergency Landing Automation Aids: An Evaluation Inspired by US Airways Flight 1549. In AIAA Infotech@ Aerospace Conference, Atlanta, Georgia.

Buck, D. A., Trainor, J. E., & Aguirre, B. E. (2006). A critical evaluation of the incident command system and NIMS. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3).

Fraher, A. (2011). Hero-making as a defence against the anxiety of responsibility and risk: a case study of US Airways Flight 1549. Organisational and Social Dynamics, 11(1), 59-78.

Marra, P. P., Dove, C. J., Dolbeer, R., Dahlan, N. F., Heacker, M., Whatton, J. F., & Henkes, G. A. (2009). Migratory Canada geese cause crash of US Airways Flight 1549. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(6), 297-301.

Pariès, J. (2009). Lessons from (the) Hudson. Hindsight, 9, 27. Retrieved from www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/732.pdf

Wang, J., Rosca, D., Tepfenhart, W., & Milewski, A. (2006). Incident command system workflow modeling and analysis: A case study. In Proceedings of the 3rd International ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) Conference, Newark, NJ (USA) (127-136).

 

 

History Essay Writing Help

Are you looking for assistance with your history essay assignment? If yes, contact our essay writing service and we will assist accordingly. Our history assignment writers have a superior understanding of the US history which ensures that they provide quality history essay assignments such as the sample below. If you like the sample, you can order for history essay writing help to get a custom essay based on your assignment instructions.

The discovery of the New World was reported by Christopher Columbus in 1492 serves as a foundation of religious and ethnic conflicts. The discovery led to immigration and further exploration in the Americas. This led to conflicts due to the cross-cultural context as witnessed in the section of Jamestown. The discovery also led to slavery and increased conflicts in the New World as settlers enslaved the indigenous people. William Penn by upholding Quaker modesty and pacifism advocated for religious and ethnic co-existence.

The section on Jamestown embroiders the current topic most as they both promote co-existence in the human race. I choose the section since conflicts endanger the human race as evidenced by the loss of life, frontier bloodshed and massacres commonly associated with the history of the New World.  Moreover, it is my opinion that, the section is beneficial to the modern day world where religious, ethnic, political and other forms of conflict abound. Modern day leaders and individuals can therefore learn about co-existence, respecting others beliefs, values, norms and perspectives and promotion of common interests through gives and takes relationships.

The discovery of the new world and the Christopher Columbus debate is sharing. Leif Eriksson may have discovered the New World but failed to report the discovery and therefore the discovery was of no benefit to the world. Christopher Columbus by reporting the discovery led to civilization of the new world and ushered in the Age of Exploration. Reporting the discovery however led to colonization and subjection of the indigenous people into slavery. The Jamestown section implores humans to act as tools for promoting peace. However, even with the efforts, conflicts may arise as evidenced by conflict lapses between Smith and the Powhatan tribes. The massacre and bloodshed witnessed during the slavery period informs on the need for observation of fundamental human rights. The history of the New World shapes national politics and human rights issues.  Studying the history makes us value the historical importance in influencing the contemporary world.

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Case Study Writing Help

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A Termination by Any Other Name: Sample APA Case Study

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Introduction

            Jeffrey Deck is an Assistant Federal Security Director attached to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at Raleigh-Durham Airport, North Carolina. Jeffrey is being terminated due to reports he had filed implicating his supervisor Bob Jewel of incompetence and misconduct including a highly publicized security breach at the airport. The reports had attracted the attention of the TSA’s Professional Review Board (PRB) which is responsible for reviewing allegations of misconduct and mismanagement among TSA’s senior officials. After the review, the board decided to terminate both Jeffrey and Bob. Jeffrey was notified about a meeting between him and the board through email three weeks to the meeting.  However, the board acknowledged that Jeffrey was not responsible for the misconduct since Bob, the Security Director, was responsible for providing leadership. TSA gave Jeffrey the option of resigning for ‘personal reasons’ as opposed to summary dismissal without benefits.

TSA representatives denied Jeffrey the opportunity to view the contents of his dismissal letter. The justification for this was that by viewing the contents of the letter, Jeffrey would have been served with a termination notice, prompting TSA to file the termination details including the reason for termination in Jeffrey’s file. Summary dismissal would prevent Jeffrey from being considered for federal employment opportunities in the future. Jeffrey noted that he could contest the removal proposal. However, the board was adamant that a change in management was required and pressured Jeffrey to take the resignation option. On request for three days time to consider the decision and consult with his attorney, Jeff was given an hour to call his attorney. Jeffrey is indirectly being terminated for whistle blowing on his supervisor.  By reporting the mismanagement of the security docket, Jeffrey brought out the incompetence and irresponsibility of top leadership in the docket. The PRB after its review was, therefore, convinced of the need to change the docket’s management personnel.

Body

            Jeffrey reported Bob’s misconduct without first engaging him on the same. This indicates Jeffrey’s inability to establish a proper and honest relationship with his boss. However, by reporting the mismanagement, Jeffrey took the right action since employees have a responsibility of reporting misconduct and mismanagement by their seniors. This responsibility is founded on laws such as Sarbanes-Oxley Act that encourages corporate officers to fight corporate mismanagement (Watnick, 2007). Nevertheless, Jeffrey overlooked the alternative of first raising the mismanagement concerns with Bob before reporting them. Raising the concerns with Bob, may have elicited a better relationship between Jeffrey and Bob. In doing so, Jeffrey would have used the strategy of substantiality whereby subordinates manage their leaders by offering important information and guidance to the leaders (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). This would also have served as a wake up call for Bob to consider the impact of his decisions and conduct on other members of his team. This is founded on the concept of centrality since leaders such as Bob are closer to the organizational internal structure and have higher levels of control (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). It is very unlikely that Jeffrey would be able to establish and maintain strong relationships with the TSA, especially if his attorney were to advise him to sue the TSA for wrongful dismissal. Failure to take the provided option would also jeopardize future relationships with other federal service leaders since he would not be in a position to gain federal employment. However, there are minimal chances that a relationship with the TSA could be maintained if he decides to retire voluntarily.

Jeffrey is a responsible leader who upholds integrity and professionalism. This argument is founded on the fact that he readily reported the misconduct of his boss. Moreover, the conduct and decisions of leaders are informed by their character and ethical values (Chadler, 2009).  His integrity, responsibility and regard for organizational procedures, is evident from his concern over misconduct including the security breach whereby more than 200 bags on a flight to New York were not screened for security purposes. Additionally, rising to the Assistant Federal Security Director is also evidence that Jeffrey effectively managed his professional responsibilities and priorities.

Jeffrey communicates effectively, both verbally and in writing. This is founded on the fact that he was able to effectively relay Bob’s misconduct in the reports he filed. He also demonstrates effective verbal communication during his meeting with the TSA representatives. Lack of communication between Jeffrey and Bob contributed to the problem. The problem is, however, amplified by the PRB board’s decision to review TSA’s management.  Communication is an essential tool for conflict management in organizations (Spaho, 2013). Though, negotiations between Jeffrey and the PRB representatives could resolve the issue, the representatives are very adamant on Jeffrey’s resignation. The board also appears to be in a hurry and negotiations are time consuming (Bornstein & Gilula, 2003).  This position could further amplify the issue especially if Jeffrey were to refuse to resign and sue the TSA over wrongful dismissal.

The issue was not properly resolved. This is majorly attributed to the adamant position of TSA’s representatives who stressed that Jeffrey should either retire or be dismissed summarily. This hindered negotiation efforts between the two parties. TSA representatives especially adopted a threat strategy during the meeting by stressing the consequences of failure to resign voluntarily. A threat tactic is founded on deterrence whereby, during negotiations the side holding a better position presents the weaker side with the consequences of failing to accept the proposed solution (Spaho, 2013). Further, there was no reference to organizational disciplinary and termination procedures.

Conclusion

            The issue would have been handled in a better manner if the parties had referred to disciplinary and termination procedures. Public sector firms should adopt such procedures in order to fairly deal with employee disciplinary and termination issues. This would also eliminate chances of lawsuits from unfairly terminated employees. Management changes should also be carried out in a manner that promotes fairness and justice especially to responsible leaders. Employees who uphold high integrity should be rewarded rather than punished.

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References

Bornstein, G., & Gilula, Z. (2003). Between-group communication and conflict resolution in assurance and chicken games. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 47(3), 326-339.

Chandler, D. J. (2009). The perfect storm of leader’s unethical behavior: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 70-93.

McShane, S. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. Y. (2010). Organizational behavior: Emerging knowledge and practice for the real world. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Spaho, K. (2013). Organizational communication and conflict management. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues18(1), 103-118.

Watnick, V. (2007). Whistleblower protections under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: A primer and a critique. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law12(5), 831-879.