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Ditching US Airways Flight 1549 in Hudson River: Sample Aviation Assignment

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Emergency Incident

An emergency incident refers to a situation that poses an instantaneous risk to health, life, property, or environment (Wang, Rosca, Tepfenhart & Milewski, 2006). It hence requires urgent intervention to in order to exercise control limiting the progression of the situation into a worse stage (Buck, Trainor & Aguirre, 2006). At times, palliative care for the aftermath is the only possible intervention as mitigation may be not possible. A good example of an emergency incident occurred on 15th January 2009 in Hudson River (Pariès, 2009). Airbus A320, a commercial passenger aircraft, US Airways Flight 1549 headed for Charlotte Douglas International Airport, North Carolina suffered a bird strike (Marra et al., 2009). This caused both its engines to fail and the flight could not make it back to LaGuardia Airport, New York City. The crew of the aircraft decided to make an unpowered emergency landing in Hudson River. There were 155 persons on board and Captain Chesley alongside First Officer Jeffrey made the ditching decision to avoid what was a likely imminent crash (Pariès, 2009). The ditching of the aircraft into the river was later on regarded as a unique and heroic aviation achievement (Pariès, 2009). The aircraft’s 6 minutes flight ended at 3:31 pm marking what would be the beginning an emergency operation to rescue the occupants of the flight from the sinking aircraft.

Following the Incident Command System

According to Buck, Trainor and Aguirre (2006), an Incident Command System (ICS) refers to a standardized approach to the command, control, and coordination of emergency response. This provides a common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be effective (Fraher, 2011). For US Airways Flight 1549, the greatest command responsibility lied with Captain Chesley. Being the flight commander, rescue and evacuation plans especially within the premises of the aircraft depended on him (Pariès, 2009). He therefore had to coordinate the flight crew on the process of evacuating the passengers from the cabin. The cabin was likely to fill up with water which would bring in the risk of drowning before rescue took place. There was need hence to take passengers to safety within the shortest time. On ditching, the captain opened cockpit door and gave the flight attendants an order to evacuate the passengers. Two flight attendants opened front doors which were meant also to activate a slide craft. The flight attendants also instructed passengers to climb over the seats as they moved forward (Marra et al., 2009). This would enable them to escape the rising waters of Hudson River inside the cabin. The safety destinations were the wings of the aircraft and an inflatable raft from where the boats would hopefully complete the evacuation process. Captain Chesley walked twice through the length of the evacuated cabin to ensure that no one remained behind (Fraher, 2011). Dave Sanderson, one of the passengers volunteered assistance in the evacuation process. Most notably, among the rescued passengers, one was in a wheelchair. Based on these observations, the process of ditching US Airways Flight 1549 into Hudson River, and the evacuation within the cabin followed Incident Command System protocol. Captain Chesley was fully leading the rest of the crew to bring the situation under control (Pariès, 2009).

Mistakes in the Hudson River Flight Ditch

The entire operation by the flight crew onboard US Airways Flight 1549 from the moment it suffered the bird strike and consequently an engine failure; to the final evacuation from the waters of Hudson River was considered a great success (Marra et al., 2009). However, a few hitches occurred one being that Captain Chesley forgot to press the ditching button which would have sealed valves and openings underneath the aircraft (Pariès, 2009). Another mistake is that a panicking passenger opened a rear door which caused water to dash in and fill the cabin at a faster rate. The second mistake would have been avoided by the flight crew assuring the passengers that all was well (Pariès, 2009). This would minimize the chances of the passengers panicking (Fraher, 2011).

The Command and Control Process

In Incident Command System protocol, the command and control process refers to the defined hierarchy which defines the role of each personnel (Buck, Trainor & Aguirre, 2006). It also defines to whom they are supposed to whom one should respond. In aviation, the practice requires that the captain should get in touch with the airport control tower in case of emergency and Captain Chesley followed this (Pariès, 2009). The rest of the crew were answerable to the captain and hence followed his orders.

The Role of the Incident Commander

In an emergency, the incident commander is responsible for the development of incident objectives (Fraher, 2011). He is also responsible for the management of all incident operations. In addition, the Incident Commander is responsible for the application of resources and overall oversight on all persons involved. The captain hence on the engine failure had to make decision regarding how best to save the flight occupants. In addition, he was responsible on devising and ensuring that all the passengers and crew members got rescued safely from the waters of Hudson River.

Definition of “Span of Control”

This refers to the number of individuals that a supervisor in an emergency is responsible for (Wang, Rosca, Tepfenhart & Milewski, 2006). The recommended ratio of supervisors to individuals is between 1:3 and 1:7. In the Hudson incident, Captain Chesley’s span of control involved the flight crew (Pariès, 2009). On their part, the flight crew members were responsible for all the passengers onboard without any specific allocation criteria.

Summary of the Event

Prior to the ditching in Hudson River, Captain Chesley had contacted air traffic control at LaGuardia Airport seeking clearance for an emergency landing. However, the realization that they could not make it back safely to the airport due to loss of altitude led to the decision to ditch in Hudson River. About 90 seconds before the ditch, Captain Chesley informed the passengers that they should brace for the impact. The flight attendants instructed the passengers how they ought to get prepared for the impact occasioned by the ditch into the waters of River Hudson. To maximize the chances of a successful rescue process, US Airways Flight 1549’s captain chose the ditching location near three boat terminals.

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Atkins, E. M. (2010). Emergency Landing Automation Aids: An Evaluation Inspired by US Airways Flight 1549. In AIAA Infotech@ Aerospace Conference, Atlanta, Georgia.

Buck, D. A., Trainor, J. E., & Aguirre, B. E. (2006). A critical evaluation of the incident command system and NIMS. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 3(3).

Fraher, A. (2011). Hero-making as a defence against the anxiety of responsibility and risk: a case study of US Airways Flight 1549. Organisational and Social Dynamics, 11(1), 59-78.

Marra, P. P., Dove, C. J., Dolbeer, R., Dahlan, N. F., Heacker, M., Whatton, J. F., & Henkes, G. A. (2009). Migratory Canada geese cause crash of US Airways Flight 1549. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7(6), 297-301.

Pariès, J. (2009). Lessons from (the) Hudson. Hindsight, 9, 27. Retrieved from

Wang, J., Rosca, D., Tepfenhart, W., & Milewski, A. (2006). Incident command system workflow modeling and analysis: A case study. In Proceedings of the 3rd International ISCRAM (Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management) Conference, Newark, NJ (USA) (127-136).



History Essay Writing Help

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The discovery of the New World was reported by Christopher Columbus in 1492 serves as a foundation of religious and ethnic conflicts. The discovery led to immigration and further exploration in the Americas. This led to conflicts due to the cross-cultural context as witnessed in the section of Jamestown. The discovery also led to slavery and increased conflicts in the New World as settlers enslaved the indigenous people. William Penn by upholding Quaker modesty and pacifism advocated for religious and ethnic co-existence.

The section on Jamestown embroiders the current topic most as they both promote co-existence in the human race. I choose the section since conflicts endanger the human race as evidenced by the loss of life, frontier bloodshed and massacres commonly associated with the history of the New World.  Moreover, it is my opinion that, the section is beneficial to the modern day world where religious, ethnic, political and other forms of conflict abound. Modern day leaders and individuals can therefore learn about co-existence, respecting others beliefs, values, norms and perspectives and promotion of common interests through gives and takes relationships.

The discovery of the new world and the Christopher Columbus debate is sharing. Leif Eriksson may have discovered the New World but failed to report the discovery and therefore the discovery was of no benefit to the world. Christopher Columbus by reporting the discovery led to civilization of the new world and ushered in the Age of Exploration. Reporting the discovery however led to colonization and subjection of the indigenous people into slavery. The Jamestown section implores humans to act as tools for promoting peace. However, even with the efforts, conflicts may arise as evidenced by conflict lapses between Smith and the Powhatan tribes. The massacre and bloodshed witnessed during the slavery period informs on the need for observation of fundamental human rights. The history of the New World shapes national politics and human rights issues.  Studying the history makes us value the historical importance in influencing the contemporary world.

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Case Study Writing Help

Students are usually presented with case study assignments from time to time. Case studies normally call for critical thinking skills in order to alienate the problem afflicting a particular company or community and point out the appropriate solutions. At, we offer unmatched case study writing help. We have experienced writers who have handled numerous case study assignments. As such, they are familiar with both the analytical approach and problem-oriented method of handling case study assignments. Notably, both approaches entail scrutinizing the case study in order to understand the occurrences, their justifications, and suggestions to suitable solutions. Notably, students should be able to identify the issues in a case study,  select the key problems, establish the alternatives for solving the problems, and propose the best solution from the alternatives. Moreover, the learners should outline how the solution should be implemented to optimize the results. Are you looking for help with writing a case study?If yes, you can contact our customer care support and we will be more than willing to work on your case study assignment. We offer original writing services, meaning that your case study will be 100% free of plagiarism. Besides, we support our arguments with credible sources drawn from recent journal articles and books. This is very crucial since case studies involve the application of theory to practical situations. Notably, such assignments give the students an opportunity to apply what they learned in class to practical scenarios. Importantly, our case study writers apply superior critical thinking skills to ensure that our clients get superior case study assignments. Ideally, A case study should be organized into the executive summary, the introduction, findings, discussion, conclusion, recommendation, implementation, references, and the appendices. The executive summary should present a synopsis of the entire paper while the introduction should give the readers a preview of the occurrences in the case. The findings should outline the problems in the case which should be supported by the available facts and literature. The discussion should present a summary of the key issues accompanied by alternative solutions to the challenges. On the other hand, the conclusion should wrap up the key points while the recommendation should present the best alternative. The implementation outlines how the best alternative should be put into actual practice and the associated costs where necessary. However, the structure is at times fluid since case study assignments can also take the following format: background/overview of the problem, problem statement, alternatives, recommendations, conclusion, and references. The second approach is especially suitable where the assignments are not lengthy. Kindly, feel free to contact us for assistance with your case study assignment. In our case study writing services, we guarantee quality and affordable prices for our esteemed clients. Do not be left behind, contact us now and start enjoying our quality case study writing services. You can order with your debit or credit card or via Paypal.

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A Termination by Any Other Name: Sample APA Case Study

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            Jeffrey Deck is an Assistant Federal Security Director attached to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at Raleigh-Durham Airport, North Carolina. Jeffrey is being terminated due to reports he had filed implicating his supervisor Bob Jewel of incompetence and misconduct including a highly publicized security breach at the airport. The reports had attracted the attention of the TSA’s Professional Review Board (PRB) which is responsible for reviewing allegations of misconduct and mismanagement among TSA’s senior officials. After the review, the board decided to terminate both Jeffrey and Bob. Jeffrey was notified about a meeting between him and the board through email three weeks to the meeting.  However, the board acknowledged that Jeffrey was not responsible for the misconduct since Bob, the Security Director, was responsible for providing leadership. TSA gave Jeffrey the option of resigning for ‘personal reasons’ as opposed to summary dismissal without benefits.

TSA representatives denied Jeffrey the opportunity to view the contents of his dismissal letter. The justification for this was that by viewing the contents of the letter, Jeffrey would have been served with a termination notice, prompting TSA to file the termination details including the reason for termination in Jeffrey’s file. Summary dismissal would prevent Jeffrey from being considered for federal employment opportunities in the future. Jeffrey noted that he could contest the removal proposal. However, the board was adamant that a change in management was required and pressured Jeffrey to take the resignation option. On request for three days time to consider the decision and consult with his attorney, Jeff was given an hour to call his attorney. Jeffrey is indirectly being terminated for whistle blowing on his supervisor.  By reporting the mismanagement of the security docket, Jeffrey brought out the incompetence and irresponsibility of top leadership in the docket. The PRB after its review was, therefore, convinced of the need to change the docket’s management personnel.


            Jeffrey reported Bob’s misconduct without first engaging him on the same. This indicates Jeffrey’s inability to establish a proper and honest relationship with his boss. However, by reporting the mismanagement, Jeffrey took the right action since employees have a responsibility of reporting misconduct and mismanagement by their seniors. This responsibility is founded on laws such as Sarbanes-Oxley Act that encourages corporate officers to fight corporate mismanagement (Watnick, 2007). Nevertheless, Jeffrey overlooked the alternative of first raising the mismanagement concerns with Bob before reporting them. Raising the concerns with Bob, may have elicited a better relationship between Jeffrey and Bob. In doing so, Jeffrey would have used the strategy of substantiality whereby subordinates manage their leaders by offering important information and guidance to the leaders (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). This would also have served as a wake up call for Bob to consider the impact of his decisions and conduct on other members of his team. This is founded on the concept of centrality since leaders such as Bob are closer to the organizational internal structure and have higher levels of control (McShane & Von Glinow, 2010). It is very unlikely that Jeffrey would be able to establish and maintain strong relationships with the TSA, especially if his attorney were to advise him to sue the TSA for wrongful dismissal. Failure to take the provided option would also jeopardize future relationships with other federal service leaders since he would not be in a position to gain federal employment. However, there are minimal chances that a relationship with the TSA could be maintained if he decides to retire voluntarily.

Jeffrey is a responsible leader who upholds integrity and professionalism. This argument is founded on the fact that he readily reported the misconduct of his boss. Moreover, the conduct and decisions of leaders are informed by their character and ethical values (Chadler, 2009).  His integrity, responsibility and regard for organizational procedures, is evident from his concern over misconduct including the security breach whereby more than 200 bags on a flight to New York were not screened for security purposes. Additionally, rising to the Assistant Federal Security Director is also evidence that Jeffrey effectively managed his professional responsibilities and priorities.

Jeffrey communicates effectively, both verbally and in writing. This is founded on the fact that he was able to effectively relay Bob’s misconduct in the reports he filed. He also demonstrates effective verbal communication during his meeting with the TSA representatives. Lack of communication between Jeffrey and Bob contributed to the problem. The problem is, however, amplified by the PRB board’s decision to review TSA’s management.  Communication is an essential tool for conflict management in organizations (Spaho, 2013). Though, negotiations between Jeffrey and the PRB representatives could resolve the issue, the representatives are very adamant on Jeffrey’s resignation. The board also appears to be in a hurry and negotiations are time consuming (Bornstein & Gilula, 2003).  This position could further amplify the issue especially if Jeffrey were to refuse to resign and sue the TSA over wrongful dismissal.

The issue was not properly resolved. This is majorly attributed to the adamant position of TSA’s representatives who stressed that Jeffrey should either retire or be dismissed summarily. This hindered negotiation efforts between the two parties. TSA representatives especially adopted a threat strategy during the meeting by stressing the consequences of failure to resign voluntarily. A threat tactic is founded on deterrence whereby, during negotiations the side holding a better position presents the weaker side with the consequences of failing to accept the proposed solution (Spaho, 2013). Further, there was no reference to organizational disciplinary and termination procedures.


            The issue would have been handled in a better manner if the parties had referred to disciplinary and termination procedures. Public sector firms should adopt such procedures in order to fairly deal with employee disciplinary and termination issues. This would also eliminate chances of lawsuits from unfairly terminated employees. Management changes should also be carried out in a manner that promotes fairness and justice especially to responsible leaders. Employees who uphold high integrity should be rewarded rather than punished.

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Bornstein, G., & Gilula, Z. (2003). Between-group communication and conflict resolution in assurance and chicken games. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 47(3), 326-339.

Chandler, D. J. (2009). The perfect storm of leader’s unethical behavior: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(1), 70-93.

McShane, S. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. Y. (2010). Organizational behavior: Emerging knowledge and practice for the real world. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Spaho, K. (2013). Organizational communication and conflict management. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues18(1), 103-118.

Watnick, V. (2007). Whistleblower protections under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act: A primer and a critique. Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law12(5), 831-879.